List of Linux cmd

Biswanath Giri
5 min readJun 3


The 🚀 Linux directory structure 🚀 follows a hierarchical tree-like structure, starting from the root directory (“/”) and branching out into various subdirectories.

💎 / (Root Directory):
The root directory is the starting point of the Linux file system hierarchy.
All other directories and files are located either directly or indirectly under the root directory.

💎 /bin (Binary Programs):
Contains essential binary executables (programs) that are available to all users.
Common commands like ls, cp, mv, etc., are located here.

💎 /boot (Bootloader Files):
Contains boot-related files, such as the Linux kernel, initial RAM disk (initrd), and boot loader configurations.
The boot loader is responsible for loading the operating system during the boot process.

💎 /dev (Device Files):
Contains device files that represent various hardware devices on the system.
These files allow access to devices such as hard drives, USB devices, serial ports, etc.

💎 /etc (System Configuration Files):
Contains system-wide configuration files and scripts.
Configuration files for various services, network settings, user information, etc., are stored here.

💎 /home (Home Directories):
Contains personal home directories for each user on the system.
Each user has a subdirectory here with their username, where they can store their personal files and settings.

💎 /lib (Shared Libraries):
Contains shared libraries required by the system and various programs.
These libraries provide common functions and features to multiple applications.

💎 /mnt (Mount Directory):
Used as a temporary mount point for mounting external file systems, such as removable media or network shares.

💎 /opt (Optional Software):
Typically used for installing additional software packages that are not part of the default system installation.
Third-party applications or programs that are not managed by the system’s package manager may be installed here.

💎 /proc (Process Information):
A virtual file system that provides information about running processes and system resources.
Each process has a directory named after its process ID (PID), containing information about the process.

💎 /sbin (System Binaries):
Contains system-related binaries (programs) that are mostly used by system administrators.
Commands necessary for system maintenance or system recovery are located here.

💎 /tmp (Temporary Files):
Used for storing temporary files created by the system and users.
Files in this directory are typically deleted when the system is rebooted.

💎 /usr (User Programs and Data):
Contains user-related programs, libraries, and data files.
It is one of the largest directories and is further divided into subdirectories such as /usr/bin, /usr/lib, /usr/include, etc.

💎 /var (Variable Data):
Contains variable files that change during system operation.
Log files, spool directories, package databases, web server data, and other variable files are stored here.

lists of cmd

  1. cd — Change directory
  2. ls — List directory contents
  3. pwd — Print working directory
  4. cat — Concatenate and display files
  5. touch — Create an empty file
  6. cp — Copy files and directories
  7. mv — Move or rename files and directories
  8. rm — Remove files and directories
  9. mkdir — Create a new directory
  10. rmdir — Remove an empty directory
  11. cut — Cut out sections of a file
  12. gzip — Compress or decompress files using gzip
  13. gunzip — Decompress files compressed with gzip
  14. find — Find files and directories matching a pattern
  15. grep — Search for a pattern in a file
  16. awk — Pattern scanning and processing language
  17. sed — Stream editor for filtering and transforming text
  18. head — Display the first few lines of a file
  19. tail — Display the last few lines of a file
  20. sort — Sort lines of a file
  21. uniq — Remove duplicate lines from a file
  22. wc — Count lines, words, and characters in a file
  23. diff — Compare two files line by line
  24. patch — Apply a patch to a file
  25. chmod — Change permissions of files and directories
  26. chown — Change the owner of a file or directory
  27. chgrp — Change the group ownership of a file or directory
  28. ps — List running processes
  29. top — Display system resource usage and process information
  30. kill — Send a signal to a process to terminate it
  31. du — Display disk usage of files and directories
  32. df — Display free disk space on the file system
  33. mount — Mount a file system
  34. umount — Unmount a file system
  35. ping — Test connectivity to a network host
  36. ssh — Secure shell remote login and command execution
  37. scp — Secure copy files between hosts
  38. rsync — Remote file and directory synchronization
  39. curl — Transfer data from or to a server using various protocols
  40. wget — Retrieve files from the web using various protocols
  41. ftp — File Transfer Protocol client
  42. sftp — Secure File Transfer Protocol client
  43. telnet — Telnet client
  44. nslookup — DNS lookup utility
  45. dig — DNS lookup utility
  46. netstat — Display network connections and statistics
  47. ifconfig — Configure network interfaces
  48. route — Display or modify the routing table
  49. iptables — Firewall and packet filtering utility
  50. hostname — Display or set the hostname of the system
  51. date — Display or set the system date and time
  52. timedatectl — Control the system date and time
  53. uname — Display system information
  54. whoami — Display the current user ID
  55. id — Display user and group information
  56. su — Switch user to become another user
  57. sudo — Execute a command with superuser privileges
  58. passwd — Change the password of a user account
  59. useradd — Create a new user account
  60. userdel — Delete a user account
  61. usermod — Modify a user account
  62. groupadd — Create a new group
  63. groupdel — Delete a group
  64. groupmod — Modify a group
  65. finger — Display information about users on the system
  66. last — Display information about recent logins
  67. history — Display command history
  68. echo — Print a message to the terminal
  69. printf — Format and print data
  70. lshw — Displays hardware information
  71. lspci — Displays information about PCI buses and devices.
  72. lsusb — Displays information about USB buses and devices.
  73. hwinfo — Displays detailed hardware information.
  74. free — Displays memory usage.
  75. vmstat — Displays system memory, processor, and I/O statistics.
  76. iostat — Displays CPU and disk I/O statistics.
  77. uptime — Displays system uptime and load averages.
  78. journalctl — Displays the system journal.
  79. dmesg — Displays the kernel ring buffer.
  80. crontab — Schedules recurring tasks.
  81. at — Schedules a one-time task.
  82. service — Manages system services.
  83. systemctl — Controls system services in systemd-based distributions.
  84. traceroute — Traces the network path to a remote host.
  85. bzip2 — Compresses files using the bzip2 algorithm.
  86. unzip — Extracts files from a ZIP archive.
  87. tee — Redirect output to multiple files
  88. chroot — Change the root directory for a process
  89. ps aux — Display information about all running processes
  90. less — Display file contents in a paginated format
  91. more — Display file contents one page at a time
  92. ln — Create links between files
  93. realpath — Print the resolved absolute path of a file
  94. watch — Execute a command periodically and display the output
  95. cal — Display a calendar
  96. tar -xzvf — Extract files from a compressed archive
  97. tar -czvf — Create a compressed archive
  98. whereis — Locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command
  99. locate — Find files by name
  100. which — Display the full path to an executable



Biswanath Giri

Helping students and professionals to learn cloud computing ,google cloud AI/ML and Google Workspace Helping Businesses with their journey to GCP